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I had not long been there but in comes this Lion, with one of his pawes sore hurt, and bloody-goared, wailing for the smart, and groaning for the paine he felt; at whose arrivall I was much dismaied, but he seeing me lie close-cowering in a corner of his den, gently made his approaches unto me, holding forth his goared paw toward me and seemed with shewing the same humbly to sue and suppliantly to beg for help at my hands.

Quorum igitur causa quis dixerit effectum esse mundum?

Diogenes, seeing his kinsfolks to take care how they might redeeme him out of thraldome; ‘they are fooles,’ said he, ‘for it is raimndo master that governeth, keepeth, feedeth, and serveth me: We see horses take a kinde of acquaintance one of another, so that often, traveling by the highway or feeding together, we have much ado to keep them asunder; wee see them bend and applie their affections to some of their fellowes colours, as if it were upon a certaine visage: Apoologa Italians proportion it big apoloba plum; the Spaniards spynie and lanke; and amongst us one would have her white, another browne, and soft and delicate, another strong and lustie; some desire wantonnesse and blithnesse, and othersome sturdinesse and majestie to be joyned with it.

Our zeale worketh wonders, whenever it secondeth our inclinations towards hatred, crueltie, ambition, avarice, detraction, or rebellion. The wives and concubines of the Thracians strive and contend which of them shal be chosen to bee slaine over her husbands or lovers tombe. Whereby it appeareth that it is not long of a true discourse, but of a foolish hardinesse and aoploga obstinacie, we prefer aologa before other creatures, and sequester our selves from their condition and societie.

The delicacy of our wines is no part of her lesson, no more is the surcharge and relishing which we adde unto our letcherous appetites.

Raymond of Sabunde

I found the conceits of the author to be excellent, the contexture of his worke well followed, and his project full of pietie. Indupedita suis fatalibus omnia vinclis.

A decree seriously digested is one thing, and these shallow and superficiall impressions another, which bred by the dissolutenesse of a loose spirit, doe rashly and uncertainely float up and downe the fantasie of a man.

Whereas so divine and heavenly an institution never markes Christians but by the tongue.

And so jealous are they in their prentiseship, that to excell one another they will so stoutly contend for the mastery that many times such as are vanquished die; their winde and strength sooner failing than their voice. This action doth somewhat resemble raimmundo which Juba, a King of that Nation, relateth asbunde their elephants; that when through the wiles of those that chase them, anyone chanceth to fall into certaine deep pits which they prepare for them, and to deceive them they cover over with reeds, shrubs, and boughes, his fellowes will speedily with all diligence bring great store of stones and peeces of timber that so they may helpe to recover him out againe.

Our forefathers used to have it bare, and our ladies as dainty-nice as they be are many times seene to goe open-breasted, as sabknde as their navill.

And listen now from whence commeth the voyce and instruction of one and other: But also over our dispositions and inclinations, our discourses and wils, which they rule, provoke, and move at the pleasure of their influences, as our reason finds and teacheth us.


A certaine citizen of Cyzicum, whilom purchased unto himselfe the reputation to be an excellent mathematician, because he had learnt the quality of the hedge-hogge, whose property is to build his hole or denne open diverse waies, and toward severall winds, and fore-seeing rising stormes, he presently stoppeth the holes that way, which thing the foresaid citizen heedfully observing, would in the City foretell any future storm, and what wind should blow. As the Spaniards did to their dogges in their new conquest of the Indias, to whom they gave wages and imparted their booties, which beasts shewed as much dexteritie in pursuing and judgement in staying their victorie, in charging or retreating, and, as occasion served, in distinguishing their friends from their enemies, as they did earnestnesse and eagerness.

I have observed how sodainly they will stop when they come before some doores where they are wont to receive alms: Which booke seeming to me both over-rich and exquisite, being written by an author whose name is so little knowne, and of whom all we know is, that he was a Spaniard, who about two hundred yeeres since professed Physicke in Tholouse: Are the foolish and wicked worthy of so extraordinary a favour, who being the worst part of the world, should they be preferred before the rest?

This discourse of beautie toucheth only our common order, and is not so sacrilegious as it intendeth or dareth to comprehend those divine, supernaturally and extraordinarie beauties which sometimes are seen to shine amongst as, even as stars under a corporall and terrestriall veile.

Our religion was ordained to root out vices, but it sabnude, fostreth, and provoketh them. This meere logicall tricke, and this use of divided and conjoyned. And hath moreover instructed them in everything fit and requisite for them, as to swim, to runne, to creepe, to flie, to roare, to bellow, and to sing: His Liber naturae sive creaturarum, etc or Theologia Naturaliswritten —, marks an important stage in the history of natural theology.

As for speech, sure it is that if it be not naturall it is not necessary. The fish, called of the Latines Scarus, having swallowed the fishers hook, his fellowes will presently flocke about him, and nible the line in sunder; and if any of them happen to be taken in a bow-net, some of his fellowes, turning his head away, will put his taile in at the neck of the net, who with his teeth fast-holding the same, never leave him untill they have pulled him out. Donec discussis redeant erroribus ad se.

Which done, and resting, assured he was the man he tooke him for, begun fawningly to wagge his taile, as dogges doe that fawne upon their newfound masters, and licke the poore and miserable slaves hands and thighs, who through fears was almost out of his wits and halfe dead. Seeing that not a man alone, nor a king only, but monarchies and empires; yea, and all the world below is moved at the shaking of one of the least heavenly motions.

The Essays of Montaigne/Book II/Chapter XII

And in his anniversary killed fiftie horse, mounted with fifty pages, whom before they had slaine with thrusting sharpe stakes into their fundament, which, going up along their chine-bone, came out at their throat; whom thus mounted; they set in orderly rankes about the tombe. Every one must not have the knowledge of his dutie referred to his owne judgement, but ought rather to have it prescribed unto him, and not be allowed to chose it at his pleasure and free will: Do we not daily see munkies ragingly in love with women, and furiously to pursue them?


We are growne striplings before we can tell a hundred; and many nations have lately beene discovered that never knew what numbers meant. Quantaque quam parvi faciant discrimina motus: He saw as himselfe reporteth a company of emmets goe from their nest, bearing amongst them the body of a dead ant, toward another emmets nest, from which many other ants came, as it were to meet them by the way to parly with them, who after they had continued together awhile, they which came last, returned backe to consult as you may imagine with their fellow-citizens, and because they could hardly come to any capitulation, they made two or three voyages to and fro.

But to come to my purpose, I say therefore, there is no likelyhood, we should imagine, the beasts doe the very same things by a naturall inclination and forced genuitie, which we doe of our freewil and industrie.

It is reported that the ravens of Barbary will doe the like, when the water they would drinke is too low. A multis animalibus decore vincimur: When I am playing with my cat, who knowes whether she have more sport in dallying with me than I have in gaming with her?

My Master said he being Proconsull in Affrica, forsomuch as he caused me every day to be most cruelly beaten, and held me in so rigorous bondage, I was constrained, as being wearie of my life, to run away; and safely to scape from so eminent a person, and who had so great authoritie in the Countrie, I thought it best to get me to the desart and most unfrequented wildernesses of that region, with a full resolution, if I could not compasse the meanes to sustaine my selfe, to finde one way or other, with violence to make myselfe away.

It is assuredly beleeved that the Whale never swimmeth unlesse she have a little fish going before her as her vantgard; it is in shape like a Gudgeon, and both the Latines and we call it the Whale-guide; for she doth ever follow him, suffering herself as easily to be led and turned by him as the ship is directed and turned by a sterne: The earth without – labour or tilling doth sufficiently produce and offer him as much as he shall need.

And doth he leave his moving because his equall is nowhere to be found?

Apología de Raimundo Sabunde – Michel de Montaigne – Google Books

Till, their fault left, they turne to sense againe. King Pirrhus, finding a dog that rai,undo a dead man, and understanding he had done so three daies and nights together, commanded the corps to be enterred and tooke the dog along with him.

Not only our words, but our actions, would beare some shew and lustre of it. Even as the vertuous actions of Socrates and Cato are but frivolous and unprofitable because they had not their end, and regarded not the love and obedience of the true creator of all things, and namely, because they were ignorant of the true knowledge of God: If this raie of Divinitie did in any sort touch us, it would everie where appeare: Some of his arguments are weake and simple to verifie what he would, and undertake to front him easily.

The Stoikes say that a man might very well sustaine himselfe with one olive a day. Well, I allow of this ingenious and voluntarie confession surely they knew those parts we so much labour to pamper to be meere fantasies.